What’s Your Set-up? Born-Digital Processing at NC State University Libraries

by Brian Dietz


Until January 2018 the NC State University Libraries did our born-digital processing using the BitCurator VM running on a Windows 7 machine. The BCVM bootstrapped our operations, and much of what I think we’ve accomplished over the last several years would not have been possible without this set up. Two years ago, we shifted our workflows to be run mostly at the command line on a Mac computer. The desire to move to CLI meant a need for a nix environment. Cygwin for Windows is not a realistic option, and the Linux subsystem, available on Windows 10, had not been released. A dedicated Linux computer wasn’t an ideal option due to IT support. I no longer wanted to manage virtual machine distributions, and a dual boot machine seemed too inefficient. Also, of the three major operating systems, I’m most familiar and comfortable with Mac OSX, which is UNIX under the hood, and certified as such. Additionally, Homebrew, a package manager for Mac, made installing and updating the programs we needed, as well as their dependencies, relatively simple. In addition to Homebrew, we use pip to update brunnhilde; and freshclam, included in ClamAV, to keep the virus database up to date. HFS Explorer, necessary for exploring Mac-formatted disks, is a manual install and update, but it might be the main pain point (and not too painful yet). With the exception of HFS Explorer, updating is done at the time of processing, so the environment is always fresh.

Current workstation

We currently have one workstation where we process born-digital materials. We do our work on a Mac Pro:

  • macOS X 10.13 High Sierra
  • 3.7 GHz processor
  • 32GB memory
  • 1TB hard drive
  • 5TB NFS-mounted networked storage
  • 5TB Western Digital external drive

We have a number of peripherals:

  • 2 consumer grade Blu-ray optical drives (LG and Samsung)
  • 2 iomega USB-powered ZIP drives (100MB and 250MB)
  • Several 3.5” floppy drives (salvaged from surplused computers), but our go-to is a Sony 83 track drive (model MPF920)
  • One TEAC 5.25” floppy drive (salvaged from a local scrap exchange)
  • Kryoflux board with power supply and ribbon cable with various connectors
  • Wiebetech USB and Forensic UltraPack v4 write blockers
  • Apple iPod (for taking pictures of media, usually transferred via AirDrop)

The tools that we use for exploration/appraisal, extraction, and reporting are largely command line tools:


  • diskutil (finding where a volume is mounted)
  • gls (finding volume name, where the GNU version shows escapes (“\”) in print outs)
  • hdiutil (mounting disk image files)
  • mmls (finding partition layout of disk images)
  • drutil status (showing information about optical media)


  • tar (packaging content from media not being imaged)
  • ddrescue (disk imaging)
  • cdparanoia (packaging content from audio discs)
  • KryoFlux GUI (floppy imaging)


  • brunnhilde (file and disk image profiling, duplication)
  • bulk_extractor (PII scanning)
  • clamav (virus scanning)
  • Exiftool (metadata)
  • Mediainfo (metadata)

Additionally, we perform archival description using ArchivesSpace, and we’ve developed an application called DAEV (“Digital Assets of Enduring Value”) that, among other things, guides processors through a session and interacts with ArchivesSpace to record certain descriptive metadata. 

Working with IT

We have worked closely with our Libraries Information Technology department to acquire and maintain hardware and peripherals, just as we have worked closely with our Digital Library Initiatives department on the development and maintenance of DAEV. For purchasing, we submit larger requests, with justifications, to IT annually, and smaller requests as needs arise, e.g., our ZIP drive broke and we need a new one. Our computer is on the refresh cycle, meaning once it reaches a certain age, it will be replaced with a comparable computer. Especially with peripherals, we provide exact technical specifications and anticipated costs, e.g., iomega 250MB ZIP drive, and IT determines the purchasing process.

I think it’s easy to assume that, because people in IT are among our most knowledgeable colleagues about computing technology, they understand what it is we’re trying to do and what it is we’ll need to do it. I think that, while they are capable of understanding our needs, their specializations lay elsewhere, and it’s a bad assumption which can result in a less than ideal computing situation. My experience is that my coworkers in IT are eager to understand our problems and to help us to solve them, but that they really don’t know what our problems are. 

The counter assumption is that we ourselves are supposed to know everything about computing. That’s probably more counterproductive than assuming IT knows everything, because 1) we feel bad when we don’t know everything and 2) in trying to hide what we don’t know, we end up not getting what we need. I think the ideal situation is for us to know what processes we need to run (and why), and to share those with IT, who should be able to say what sort of processor and how RAM is needed. If your institution has a division of labor, i.e., specializations, take advantage of it. 

So, rather than saying, “we need a computer to support digital archiving,” or “I need a computer with exactly these specs,” we’ll be better off requesting a consultation and explaining what sort of work we need a computer to support. Of course, the first computer we requested for a born-digital workstation, which was intended to support a large initiative, came at a late hour and was in the form of “We need a computer to support digital archiving,” with the additional assumption of “I thought you knew this was happening.” We got a pretty decent Windows 7 computer that worked well enough.

I also recognize that I may be describing a situation that does not exist in man other institutions. In those cases, perhaps that’s something to be worked toward, through personal and inter-departmental relationship building. At any rate, I recognize and am grateful for the support my institution has extended to my work. 

Challenges and opportunities

I’ve got two challenges coming up. Campus IT has required that all Macs be upgraded to macOS Mojave to “meet device security requirements.” From a security perspective, I’m all onboard for this. However, in our testing the Kryoflux is not compatible with Mojave. This appears to be related to a security measure Mojave has in place for controlling USB communication. After several conversations with Libraries IT, they’ve recommended assigning us a Windows 10 computer for use with the Kryoflux. Beyond having two computers, I see obvious benefits to this. One is that I’ll be able to install the Linux subsystem on Windows 10 and explore whether going full-out Linux might be an option for us. Another is that I’ll have ready access to FTK Imager again, which comes in handy from time to time. 

The other challenge we have is working with our optical drives. We have consumer grade drives, and they work inconsistently. While Drive 1 may read Disc X but not Disc Y, Drive 2 will do the obverse. At the 2019 BitCurator Users Forum, Kam Woods discussed higher grade optical drives in the “There Are No Dumb Questions” session. (By the way, everyone should consider attending the Forum. It’s a great meeting that’s heavily focused on practice, and it gets better each year. This year, the Forum will be hosted by Arizona State University, October 12-13. The call for proposals will be coming out in early March).

In the coming months we’ll be doing some significant changes to our workflow, which will include tweaking a few things, reordering some steps, introducing new tools, e.g., walk_to_dfxml, Bulk Reviewer, and, I hope, introducing more automation into the process. We’re also due for a computer refresh, and, while we’re sticking with Macs for the time being, we’ll again work with our IT to review computer specifications.

Brian Dietz is the Digital Program Librarian for Special Collections at NC State University Libraries, where he manages born-digital processing, and web archiving, and digitization.

The Best of BDAX: Five Themes from the 2016 Born Digital Archiving & eXchange

By Kate Tasker


Put 40 digital archivists, programmers, technologists, curators, scholars, and managers in a room together for three days, give them unlimited cups of tea and coffee, and get ready for some seriously productive discussions.

This magic happened at the Born Digital Archiving & eXchange (BDAX) unconference, held at Stanford University on July 18-20, 2016. I joined the other BDAX attendees to tackle the continuing challenges of acquiring, discovering, delivering and preserving born-digital materials.

The discussions highlighted five key themes to me:

1) Born-digital workflows are, generally, specific

We’re all coping with the general challenges of born-digital archiving, but we’re encountering individual collections which need to be addressed with local solutions and resources. BDAXers generously shared examples of use cases and successful workflows, and, although these guidelines couldn’t always translate across diverse institutions (big/small, private/public, IT help/no IT help), they’re a foundation for building best practices which can be adapted to specific needs.

2) We need tools

We need reliable tools that will persist over time to help us understand collections, to record consistent metadata and description, and to discover the characteristics of new content types. Project demos including ePADD, BitCurator Access, bwFLA – Emulation as a Service, UC Irvine’s Virtual Reading Room, the Game Metadata and Citation Project, and the University of Michigan’s ArchivesSpace-Archivematica-DSpace Integration project gave encouragement that tools are maturing and will enable us to work with more confidence and efficiency. (Thanks to all the presenters!)

3) Smart people are on this

A lot of people are doing a lot of work to guide and document efforts in born-digital archiving. We need to share these efforts widely, find common points of application, and build momentum – especially for proposed guidelines, best guesses, and continually changing procedures. (We’re laying this train track as we go, but everybody can get on board!) A brilliant resource from BDAX is a “Topical Brain Dump” Google doc where everyone can share tips related to what we each know about born-digital archives (hat-tip to Kari Smith for creating the doc, and to all BDAXers for their contributions).

4) Talking to each other helps!

Chatting with BDAX colleagues over coffee or lunch provided space to compare notes, seek advice, make connections, and find reassurance that we’re not alone in this difficult endeavor. Published literature is continually emerging on born-digital archiving topics (for example, born-digital description), but if we’re not quite ready to commit our own practices to paper magnetic storage media, then informal conversations allow us to share ideas and experiences.

5) Born-digital archiving needs YOU

BDAX attendees brainstormed a wide range of topics for discussion, illustrating that born-digital archiving collides with traditional processes at all stages of stewardship, from appraisal to access. All of these functions need to be re-examined and potentially re-imagined. It’s a big job (*understatement*) but brings with it the opportunity to gather perspective and expertise from individuals across different roles. We need to make sure everyone is invited to this party.

How to Get Involved

So, what’s next? The BDAX organizers and attendees recognize that there are many, many more colleagues out there who need to be included in these conversations. Continuing efforts are coalescing around processing levels and metrics for born-digital collections; accurately measuring and recording extent statements for digital content; and managing security and storage needs for unprocessed digital accessions. Please, join in!

You can read extensive notes for each session in this shared Google Drive folder (yes, we did talk about how to archive Google docs!) or catch up on Tweets at #bdax2016.

To subscribe to the BDAX email listserv, please email Michael Olson (mgolson[at]stanford[dot]edu), or, to join the new BDAX Slack channel, email Shira Peltzman (speltzman[at]library[dot]ucla[dot]edu).


ktasker-profile-picKate Tasker works with born-digital collections and information management systems at The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. She has an MLIS from San Jose State University and is a member of the Academy of Certified Archivists. Kate attended Capture Lab in 2015 and is currently designing workflows to provide access to born-digital collections.

Politics, Transparency, and Email: Lessons Learned from Trying to Preserve the Historical Record

By Angela White

This post is the ninth in our Spring 2016 series on processing digital materials.


My first chance to process an email collection came when a small nonprofit organization[1] in the mid-Atlantic selected my institution as the home for its records. The organization was closing its doors after several decades of advocacy around government transparency. My contact, Fergus[2], made clear from the beginning that he wanted us to preserve the organization’s email as part of the project. I explained the features of ePADD, emphasizing the filtering mechanisms and the ability to isolate items that contained sensitive Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Based on Fergus’s enthusiasm, I naively assumed that the employees’ commitment to transparency extended to their own inboxes.

When Fergus announced our intentions to current and former employees, the protests began pouring in. There were several reasons for concern: many employees used their work email addresses for personal correspondence, the accounts contained information from a number of confidential mailing lists, and there were conversations with politically-active people who had expectations of confidentiality. At this point, I also learned that most employees of the organization no longer had access to their accounts and were unable to clean up sensitive information.

I knew ePADD could make short work of the sensitive PII and mailing lists. However, the private conversations were a big part of the appeal—I couldn’t promise to filter those, but I did offer to restrict the accounts for a period of time and emphasized that access would be onsite only. Later I suggested that transfers could be opt-in, but the damage had already been done. The last straw came when federal government staff got wind of the plan and began voicing their concerns. We had to cancel the project in the face of overwhelming opposition and continued on with the rest of the collection.

There are a number of lessons to take away from this email debacle: do not assume that the organization’s representative is aware of the potential problems with email; make sure that all affected employees have the opportunity to pull out anything personal; and speak face-to-face with members of the organization whenever possible, preferably with a demonstration of ePADD. As a result of our experience, I’m developing a set of questions to guide initial conversations about email:

  1. Does your organizations have any official policies related to use of its email accounts? Is email expected to be part of the public record? How are employees notified of this policy and when?
  2. What is the email culture at your organization? Do employees routinely use work email for personal reasons?
  3. What kind of work-related email exchanges take place on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis? Are any of these of a sensitive political nature? Will any of the work-related content need to be restricted? For how long?
  4. Are the accounts of former employees retained? For how long? How long do they retain access to the account after leaving the organization?

Taking email records from individuals who continue to work in the field requires a sensitive touch. I’ll be better prepared next time to deal with the very real difficulties of convincing people to pry open their inboxes. Despite the technical challenges of digital preservation, I’ve discovered that acquisition is sometimes the hardest part of the process.

[1] The organization has been anonymized to prevent further consternation for former employees.

[2] Name changed to protect the harried.


Angela WhiteAngela White is the Philanthropic Studies Archivist at IUPUI in Indianapolis. She collects the records of nonprofit organizations and fundraisers to support the work of the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy. She is currently in conversations with a number of individuals about accessioning their email records.

Mecha-Archivists Revisited: An Interview with Trevor Owens and Emily Reynolds

BloggERS! recently reached out to Trevor Owens and Emily Reynolds from IMLS to discuss the role of archives digital processing activities in the context of the IMLS national digital platform funding priority.

This interview was conducted asynchronously in text.


BloggERS!: Tell us about the national digital platform funding priority. Why was it introduced, and what are its primary objectives and deliverables?

Trevor: The national digital platform is a framework for approaching all the digital tools, services, infrastructure, and human effort libraries and archives use to meet the needs of their users across the country. In this respect, the platform isn’t an individual thing. It isn’t a piece of software or a website. Instead, it’s the combination of software applications, social and technical infrastructure, and staff expertise that provide library and archive content and services to all users in the US. For more on the concept, see this article Maura Marx and I wrote for American Libraries magazine.

The National Digital Platform concept was developed and refined through two IMLS Focus convenings (reports from the 2014 and 2015 convenings are available online). Those convenings brought together a diverse array of experts and stakeholders from across library and archives contexts who urged IMLS (and other funders) to focus more on making investments in digital tools and services that could have catalytic national impacts. The results of those meetings have informed the development of a specific national digital platform portfolio in the National Leadership Grants for Libraries Program (NLG) and the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Program (LB21).


Trevor Owens, Senior Program Officer at IMLS, opening the “Defining and Funding the National Digital Platform” panel, April 2015

BloggERS!: What do you think have been the biggest impacts of the national digital platform so far, especially for archivists working with digital materials?

Trevor: It is still rather early to see the range of impacts and outcomes the first projects in this portfolio are and having. The initial four projects funded from the first cycle of grants last year still haven’t been running for a year yet, the second cycle of grants from last year have only been going for about six months, and the first cycle of grants from this year have just been awarded. With that said, I would suggest that the national digital platform as a framework has already made a significant shift in terms of the projects we are funding. In comparison to many previous projects, these efforts have stronger and clearer plans and approaches to building communities of practice and coalitions to work together to tackle challenges. So in that vein, I’m excited about the prospects of librarians and archivists increasingly seeing their work having both local and direct impacts in their institutions but also as part of national and international networks of teams building, refining, documenting and improving the field through their involvement in the tools that enable our work. So if you take any of those individual projects, like EPADD or Hydra-in-a-box and you see a flurry of activity and engagement with a lot of different stakeholders already as parts of these projects.

Emily: In addition to the tools and services that we’ve funded through NLG, we’ve also seen several LB21 projects have an impact in terms of creating training opportunities for librarians and archivists working with digital materials. The LB21 program has a history of funding projects related to digital skills, even before we conceptualized it as part of the national digital platform. The National Digital Stewardship Residency (NDSR) program is one example; at this point 35 residents have participated in the program in DC, Boston, and New York, and we’ve funded several additional cohorts. Those projects have had real impacts on the careers of the residents themselves (full disclosure: I’m an alumna of the program), as well as the institutions they worked in.

BloggERS!: Where are the current gaps in our national digital capacity with regard to the processing of digital materials?

Emily: One of the interesting things about our jobs as Program Officers is that we aren’t necessarily the ones answering that question. We rely on applicants, peer reviewers, and professionals working in the field to let us know what the pain points are, and where additional capacity is needed. Conferences and blogs (like this one!) are incredibly useful for us to see what topics are of interest in the community, so that we can look at those needs in the context of IMLS’ broader strategic goals and grant programs.

To me, our capacity to manage born-digital and digitized audiovisual materials at scale seems like one of the most critical gaps. IMLS has funded a fair amount of work in this area, from oral history projects like OHMS and Oral History in the Digital Age, to computational approaches to providing access to audio from WGBH and Pop Up Archive, to tools like Avalon Media System. Even with all of this great work, it still remains challenging to adequately manage this complex content and provide meaningful access to it.

Trevor: Completely agree with Emily’s first point on this. The national digital platform is, in many ways, a challenge to the field and to applicants to make the case for what those gaps are and to establish and launch the coalitions that are going to fill them. With that noted, alongside Emily’s points about AV materials, I would also add that it seems like things are starting to really begin to converge and coalesce around the potential for open source tools to support emulation and virtualization as modes of access and preservation. I’ll talk a bit more about some of the projects pointing in this direction in a bit.

BloggERS!: How will the national digital platform help to support the wide variety of different tools and technologies used to acquire, process, and preserve digital materials in archives, libraries, and museums?

Emily: Overall, I think there are a few key themes in our approach to the national digital platform. We’re looking for tools and services that can be implemented and used by many different institutions, across the spectrum in terms of size and resources. I think your use of the phrase “wide variety” in the question also points to another important consideration for us: interoperability. So many institutions are using bespoke approaches to the same problems, with slight variations in tools and methods. Creating linkages between tools and building communities of practice will lower barriers to entry and raise baseline capacity.

Trevor: I would also add that, conceptually, all of those tools and technologies that libraries, archives and museums are using with digital content are already part of the national digital platform. I’m not just trying to be cute, or clever in saying that either. When we step back and look at all of those tools and services that exist now and the skills and knowledge it takes to make them work you start to see all those places where we need to interject resources to improve it. So along with Emily’s great points on interoperability and connecting tools and services I would also again stress that a huge part of this is about skilling up the library and archives workforce to be able to use the range of tools, many of which only work at the command line, that we can piece together to do this work.

BloggERS!: Which current projects being funded through the national digital platform priority are you most excited about?

Trevor: I’m excited about all of them! Seriously, our review process is very competitive and anything that makes it though is really exciting work. With that said, there is a good bit of work that we aren’t able to fund that I would also be excited about. I am happy to share some examples of projects that are particularly relevant to archivists.

Several projects are already making important inroads in this area. I’ll mention a few and then I am sure Emily has some in her portfolio that she can share. For each of these projects anyone can read through their proposal narratives online. So I will be brief about them and link out to where you can find the proposals.

The Software Preservation Network (LG-73-15-0133-15) is holding a national forum alongside this year’s SAA conference to work toward establishing a network of archives working together to develop a strategy for using historical software to provide access to and to process digital archival material. In a related effort, through A Re-enactment Tool for Collections of Digital Artifacts (LG-70-16-0079-16), Rhizome, in partnership with Yale University and the University of Freiburg, are working to enhance a set of open source software tools connecting archives of digital artifacts and emulation frameworks. Together these projects are positioned to both help refine the toolset for this kind of work and to build and establish the community of practice and networks necessary to support archivists doing this work.

Through Systems Interoperability and Collaborative Development for Web Archiving (LG-71-15-0174-15) the Internet Archive, with the University of North Texas, Rutgers University, and Stanford University Library are working to improve systems interoperability and to model enhanced access to, and research use of, web archives. This applied research project is well positioned to refine ways for institutions to interact with Archive-It. Given that over 400 some institutions are using Archive-It, improvements to this system will be very useful to many institutions in the field.

The last project I’ll mention, Improving Access to Time-Based Media through Crowdsourcing and Machine Learning (LG-71-15-0208-15) is a neat example of how an applied research project can significantly impact the field. In this project, the archives at WGBH and the Pop-Up Archive are exploring approaches for metadata creation by leveraging scalable computation and engaging the public to improve access through crowdsourcing games for time-based media. This includes an interesting mixture of speech-to-text and audio analysis tools and open source web-based tools to improve transcripts by engaging the public in a crowdsourced, participatory cataloging project. So the process has potential to inform future work, as well as test the tools that are created as part of the project. Lastly, by working with a massive archive of public broadcasting AV content, the project partners are also going to create and distribute a public dataset of audiovisual metadata for use by other projects.

Emily: Like Trevor said, it’s really hard for us to pick only a few projects to highlight, since we’re so excited about all of the work we’re funding. The development of ePADD (LG-70-15-0242-15) is one great example of IMLS-funded work that will help support digital processing activities. I’m happy to see that a few different people have mentioned it already in this blog series, because it really is an exciting advance in archivists’ capacity to manage email archives.

We also have funded a few interesting national forum projects recently. National forum grants support a meeting or series of meetings, bringing together stakeholders and experts in a topic. Those relationships and networks can persist long past the end of the grant. I’m really looking forward to seeing the results of On the Record, All the Time (RE-43-16-0053-16), a national forum grant to UCLA. They’re addressing the management of digital audiovisual evidence used by law enforcement, and I think the project has the potential to bring about some really interesting partnerships and relationships with other sectors. Like I mentioned earlier, audiovisual content is a huge challenge, and this is an interesting subset of it.

Another exciting national forum grant was awarded to the Amistad Research Center for a project called Diversifying the Digital Historical Record (LG-73-16-0003-16). This project will include a series of meetings with participants including community archives practitioners, scholars, community members, and digital collections experts. It’s an incredibly important issue and the range of partners on the project is amazing.

BloggERS!: Trevor, in a 2014 blogpost, Mecha-Archivists: Envisioning the Role of Software in the Future of Archives, you highlighted the potential value of computational techniques, such as topic modeling and named entity recognition, to help “extend and amplify the seasoned judgement, ethics, wisdom, and expertise [of archivists]” to support making materials available to the user. What progress have you seen in this space since 2014, and how would you rate the development of and training around these tools as a priority within IMLS?

Trevor: I see a lot of the ideas I explored in that Radcliffe Workshop on Technology and Archival Processing as fitting very well with the idea of the National Digital Platform. The key concept in that talk is that we need to approach the work of cultural heritage institutions as complex systems which deploy enabling technologies that support, amplify and extend the abilities of archivists, librarians and the curators to do their work. I realize that’s a mouthful. So I can talk through some examples.

All too often, I have seen folks approach some computational tool and say, “Oh, we could use this to automate classification or description” or a variety of other activities. This sets the bar way too high for the machines. It also is part of longstanding, problematic and flawed notions about expertise, efficiency and labor that devalue what it means to be a professional and an expert. The judgement of professionals and experts is really hard to beat, and it isn’t something we should be trying to beat. Instead of erasing or ignoring all of the accumulated wisdom and expertise of professional librarians, archivists and curators, we should be working to build from and amplify it.

In my mind, the solution is rather simple. Instead of trying to replace the work of experts, it is much better to think through how we can enable and extend that judgement through tools. The example I used in the Radcliffe talk involved Topic Modeling, but I think the same process can and should work for things like natural language processing tools named entity extraction tools, or for that matter tools and services that automate deriving data about audio files or image files.

I see all of this fitting into the national digital platform in a few clear ways. First off, the platform is defined not as a set of tools and services, but as the combined effects of those tools and services and the professionals that animate and operate them. In that vein, the platform is as much about empowering, training and supporting professionals to do the work as it is about giving them the tools to enable them to do the work.

BloggERS!: How can our readers learn more about the national digital platform?

Emily: There is a national digital platform page on the IMLS website, where you can see links to related blog posts, press releases, and publications. That page also links to information about the national digital platform convenings we held in 2014 and 2015. When we post Notices of Funding Opportunity for NLG and LB21, those documents will also have specific information about the funding categories and topics of interest for that specific program.

As part of ongoing efforts towards increased transparency, we’ve begun to publish several documents from successful grant applications online. Trevor and I recently did a series of blog posts highlighting recent awards; each of the projects mentioned in these posts has a link to view some of their proposal documents.

Of course, we also strongly encourage potential applicants and others interested in the national digital platform to contact us! We’re happy to talk through project ideas and provide any additional information about IMLS programs.


qMpvSkY2.jpegEmily Reynolds is a Program Officer in the Office of Library Services at the Institute of Museum and Library Services. She manages a portfolio of grants within IMLS’ national digital platform priority area, primarily focusing on projects related to the education and training of librarians and archivists. Prior to joining IMLS, Emily was a National Digital Stewardship Resident at the World Bank Group Archives. Emily has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan School of Information, and was the recipient of a 2014 National Digital Stewardship Alliance Innovation Award.

Trevor-0.jpgTrevor Owens serves as the Senior Program Officer responsible for the development of the national digital platform portfolio for the Office of Library Services in the Institute of Museum and Library Services. He steers an overall strategy encompassing research, grant making, and policy agendas, as well as communications initiatives, in support of the development of national digital services and resources in libraries. From 2010-2015, Trevor served as a Digital Archivist with the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) in the Office of Strategic Initiatives at the Library of Congress. Before that, he was the community manager for the Zotero project at the Center for History and New Media. Trevor has a doctorate in social science research methods and educational technology from the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University, a bachelor’s degree in the history of science from the University of Wisconsin, and a master’s degree in American history with an emphasis on digital history from George Mason University. He teaches graduate seminars on digital curation, digital preservation and digital history for the University of Maryland’s iSchool and American University’s history department. In 2014 the Society for American Archivists gave him the Archival Innovator Award, an award granted annually to recognize the archivist, repository, or organization that best exemplifies the “ability to think outside the professional norm.”

Using NLP to Support Dynamic Arrangement, Description, and Discovery of Born Digital Collections: The ArchExtract Experiment

By Mary W. Elings

This post is the eighth in our Spring 2016 series on processing digital materials.


Many of us working with archival materials are looking for tools and methods to support arrangement, description, and discovery of electronic records and born digital collections, as well as large bodies of digitized text. Natural Language Processing (NLP), which uses algorithms and mathematical models to process natural language, offers a variety of potential solutions to support this work. Several efforts have investigated using NLP solutions for analyzing archival materials, including TOME (Interactive TOpic Model and MEtadata Visualization), Ed Summers’ Fondz, and Thomas Padilla’s Woese Collection work, among others, though none have resulted in a major tool for broader use.

One of these projects, ArchExtract, was carried out at UC Berkeley’s Bancroft Library in 2014-2015. ArchExtract sought to apply several NLP tools and methods to large digital text collections and build a web application that would package these largely command-line NLP tools into an interface that would make it easy for archivists and researchers to use.

The ArchExtract project focused on facilitating analysis of the content and, via that analysis, discovery by researchers. The development work was done by an intern from the UC Berkeley School of Information, Janine Heiser, who built a web application that implements several NLP tools, including Topic Modelling, Named Entity Recognition, and Keyword Extraction to explore and present large, text-based digital collections.

The ArchExtract application extracts topics, named entities (people, places, subjects, dates, etc.), and keywords from a given collection. The application automates, implements, and extends various natural language processing software tools, such as MALLET and the Stanford Core NLP toolkit, and provides a graphical user interface designed for non-technical users.


ArchExtract Interface Showing Topic Model Results. Elings/Heiser, 2015.

In testing the application, we found the automated text analysis tools in ArchExtract were successful in identifying major topics, as well as names, dates, and places found in the text, and their frequency, thereby giving archivists an understanding of the scope and content of a collection as part of the arrangement and description process. We called this process “dynamic arrangement and description,” as materials can be re-arranged using different text processing settings so that archivists can look critically at the collection without changing the physical or virtual arrangement.

The topic models, in particular, surfaced documents that may have been related to a topic but did not contain a specific keyword or entity. The process was akin to the sort of serendipity a researcher might achieve when shelf reading in the analog world, wherein you might find what you seek without knowing it was there. And while topic modelling has been criticized for being inexact, it can be “immensely powerful for browsing and isolating results in thousands or millions of uncatalogued texts” (Schmidt, 2012). This, combined with the named entity and keyword extraction, can give archivists and researchers important data that could be used in describing and discovering material.

ArchExtract Interface Showing Named Entity Recognition Results. Elings/Heiser, 2015.

As a demonstration project, ArchExtract was successful in achieving our goals. The code developed is documented and freely available on GitHub to anyone interested in how it was done or who might wish to take it further. We are very excited by the potential of these tools in dynamically arranging and describing large, text-based digital collections, but even more so by their application in discovery. We are particularly pleased that broad, open source projects like BitCurator and ePADD are taking this work forward and will be bringing NLP tools into environments that we can all take advantage of in processing and providing access to our born digital materials.


Mary W. Elings is the Principal Archivist for Digital Collections and Head of the Digital Collections Unit of The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. She is responsible for all aspects of the digital collections, including managing digital curation activities, the born digital archives program, web archiving, digital processing, mass digitization, finding aid publication and maintenance, metadata, archival information management and digital asset management, and digital initiatives. Her current work concentrates on issues surrounding born-digital materials, supporting digital humanities and digital social sciences, and research data management. Ms. Elings co-authored the article “Metadata for All: Descriptive Standards and Metadata Sharing across Libraries, Archives and Museums,” and wrote a primer on linked data for LAMs. She has taught as an adjunct professor in the School of Information Studies at Syracuse University, New York (2003-2009) and School of Library and Information Science, Catholic University, Washington, DC (2010-2014), and is a regular guest-lecturer in the John F. Kennedy University Museum Studies program (2010-present).

Indiana Archives and Records Administration’s Accession Profile Use in Bagger

By Tibaut Houzanme and John Scancella

This post is the seventh in our Spring 2016 series on processing digital materials. This quick report for the practitioner drew from the “Bagger’s Enhancements for Digital Accessions” post prepared for the Library of Congress’ blog The Signal.



In the past, the Indiana Archives and Records Administration (IARA) would simply receive, hash and place digital accessions in storage, with the metadata keyed into a separate Microsoft Access Database. Currently, IARA is automating many of its records processes with the APPX-based Archival Enterprise Management system (AXAEM). When the implementation concludes, this open source, integrated records management and digital preservation system will become the main accessioning tool. For now, and for accessions outside AXAEM’s reach, IARA uses Bagger.  Both AXAEM and Bagger comply with the BagIt packaging standard: accessions captured with Bagger can later be readily ingested by AXAEM. IARA anticipates time gains and record/metadata silos reduction.

Initial Project Scope

IARA aims to capture required metadata for each accession in a consistent manner. Bagger allows this to be done through a standard profile. IARA developed a profile inspired by the fields and drop-down menus on its State Form (SF 48883). When that profile was initially implemented, Bagger scrambled the metadata fields order and the accession was not easily understood. John Scancella, the lead Bagger developer at the Library of Congress implemented a change that makes Bagger now keep the metadata sequence as originally intended in the profile. IARA then added additional metadata fields for preservation decisions.

Scope Expansion and Metadata Fields

With  colleagues’ feedback, it appeared IARA’s profile could be useful to other institutions. A generic version of the profile was then created, that uses more generic terms and made all the metadata fields optional. This way, each institution can decide which fields it would enforce the use of. This makes the generic profile useful to most digital records project and collecting institutions.

The two profiles display similar  metadata fields for context (provenance, records series), identity, integrity, physical, logical, inventory, administrative, digital originality, storage media or carriers types, appraisal and classification values, format openness and curation lifecycle information for each accession. Together with the hash values and files size that Bagger collects, this provides a framework to more effectively help evaluate, manage and preserve long term digital records.

Below are the profile fields:

Figure 1: IARA Profile with Sample Accession Screen (1 of 2)


Figure 2: IARA Profile with Sample Accession Screen (2 of 2)


The fictitious metadata  values in the figures above are for demonstration purposes and include hash value and size in the corresponding text file below:

Figure 3: Metadata Fields and Values in the bag-info.txt File after Bag Creation

This test accession used  random files accessible from the Digital Corpora and Open Preservation websites.

Adopting or Adapting Profiles

To use the IARA’s profile, its generic version or any other profile in Bagger, download the latest version (as of this writing 2.5.0). To start an accession, select the appropriate profile from the dropdown list. This will populate the screen with the profile-specific metadata fields. Select objects, enter values, save your bag.

For detailed instructions on how to edit metadata fields and obligation level, create  a new or change an existing profile to meet your project/institution’s requirements, please refer to the Bagger User Guide in the “doc” folder inside your downloaded Bagger.zip file.

To comment on IARA’s profiles, email erecords[at]iara[dot]in[dot]gov. For Bagger issues, open a GitHub ticket. For technical information on Bagger and these profiles, please refer to the LOC’s Blog.


Tibaut Houzanme is Digital Archivist with the Indiana Archives and Records Administration. John Scancella is Information Technology Specialist with the Library of Congress.

Processing Digital Research Data

By Elise Dunham

This is the sixth post in our Spring 2016 series on processing digital materials.


The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign’s (Illinois) library-based Research Data Service (RDS) will be launching an institutional data repository, the Illinois Data Bank (IDB), in May 2016. The IDB will provide University of Illinois researchers with a repository for research data that will facilitate data sharing and ensure reliable stewardship of published data. The IDB is a web application that transfers deposited datasets into Medusa, the University Library’s digital preservation service for the long-term retention and accessibility of its digital collections. Content is ingested into Medusa via the IDB’s unmediated self-deposit process.

As we conceived of and developed our dataset curation workflow for digital datasets ingested in the IDB, we turned to archivists in the University Archives to gain an understanding of their approach to processing digital materials. [Note: I am not specifying whether data deposited in the IDB is “born digital” or “digitized” because, from an implementation perspective, both types of material can be deposited via the self-deposit system in the IDB. We are not currently offering research data digitization services in the RDS.] There were a few reasons for consulting with the archivists: 1) Archivists have deep, real-world curation expertise and we anticipate that many of the challenges we face with data will have solutions whose foundations were developed by archivists and 2) If, through discussing processes, we found areas where the RDS and Archives have converging preservation or curation needs, we could communicate these to the Preservation Services Unit, who develops and manages Medusa, and 3) I’m an archivist by training and I jump on any opportunity to talk with archivists about archives!

Even though the RDS and the University Archives share a central goal–to preserve and make accessible the digital objects that we steward–we learned that there are some operational and policy differences between our approaches to digital stewardship that necessitate points of variance in our processing/curation workflow:

Appraisal and Selection

In my view, appraisal and selection are fundamental to the archives practice. The archives field has developed a rich theoretical foundation when it comes to appraisal and selection, and without these functions the archives endeavor would be wholly unsustainable. Appraisal and selection ideally tend to occur in the very early stages of the archival processing workflow. The IDB curation workflow will differ significantly–by and large, appraisal and selection procedures will not take place until at least five years after a dataset is published in the IDB–making our appraisal process more akin to that of an archives that chooses to appraise records after accessioning or even during the processing of materials for long-term storage. Our different approaches to appraisal and selection speak to the different functions the RDS and the University Archives fulfill within the Library and the University.

The University Archives is mandated to preserve University records in perpetuity by the General Rules of the University, the Illinois State Records Act. The RDS’s initiating goal, in contrast, is to provide a mechanism for Illinois researchers to be compliant with funder and/or journal requirements to make results of research publicly available. Here, there is no mandate for the IDB to accept solely what data is deemed to have “enduring value” and, in fact, the research data curation field is so new that we do not yet have a community-endorsed sense of what “enduring value” means for research data. Standards regarding the enduring value of research data may evolve over the long-term in response to discipline-specific circumstances.

To support researchers’ needs and/or desires to share their data in a simple and straightforward way, the IDB ingest process is largely unmediated. Depositing privileges are open to all campus affiliates who have the appropriate University log-in credentials (e.g., faculty, graduate students, and staff), and deposited files are ingested into Medusa immediately upon deposit. RDS curators will do a cursory check of deposits, as doing so remains scalable (see workflow chart below), and the IDB reserves the right to suppress access to deposits for a “compelling reason” (e.g., failure to meet criteria for depositing as outlined in the IDB Accession Policy, violations of publisher policy, etc.). Aside from cases that we assume will be rare, the files as deposited into the IDB, unappraised, are the files that are preserved and made accessible in the IDB.

Preservation Commitment

A striking policy difference between the RDS and the University Archives is that the RDS makes a commitment to preserving and facilitating access to datasets for a minimum of five years after the date of publication in the Illinois Data Bank.

The University Archives, of course, makes a long-term commitment to preserving and making accessible records of the University. I have to say, when I learned that the five-year minimum commitment was the plan for the IDB, I was shocked and a bit dismayed! But after reflecting on the fact that files deposited in the IDB undergo no formal appraisal process at ingest, the concept began to feel more comfortable and reasonable. At a time when terabytes of data are created, oftentimes for single projects, and budgets are a universal concern, there are logistical storage issues to contend with. Now, I fully believe that for us to ensure that we are able to 1) meet current, short-term data sharing needs on our campus and 2) fulfill our commitment to stewarding research data in an effective and scalable manner over time, we have to make a circumspect minimum commitment and establish policies and procedures that enable us to assess the long-term viability of a dataset deposited into the IDB after five years.

The RDS has collaborated with archives and preservation experts at Illinois and, basing our work in archival appraisal theory, have developed guidelines and processes for reviewing published datasets after their five-year commitment ends to determine whether to retain, deaccession, or dedicate more stewardship resources to datasets. Enacting a systematic approach to appraising the long-term value of research data will enable us to allot resources to datasets in a way that is proportional to the datasets’ value to research communities and its preservation viability.


To show that we’re not all that different after all, I’ll briefly mention a few areas where the University Archives and the RDS are taking similar approaches or facing similar challenges:

  • We are both taking an MPLP-style approach to file conversion. In order to get preservation control of digital content, at minimum, checksums are established for all accessioned files. As a general rule, if the file can be opened using modern technology, file conversion will not be pursued as an immediate preservation action. Establishing strategies and policies for managing a variety of file formats at scale is an area that will be evolving at Illinois through collaboration of the University Archives, the RDS, and the Preservation Services Unit.
  • Accruals present metadata challenges. How do we establish clear accrual relationships in our metadata when a dataset or a records series is updated annually? Are there ways to automate processes to support management of accruals?
  • Both units do as much as they can to get contextual information about the material being accessioned from the creator, and metadata is enhanced as possible throughout curation/processing.
  • The University Archives and the RDS control materials in aggregation, with the University Archives managing at the archival collection level and the RDS managing digital objects at the dataset level.
  • More? Certainly! For both the research data curation community and the archives community, continually adopting pragmatic strategies to manage the information created by humans (and machines!) is paramount, and we will continue to learn from one another.

Research Data Alliance Interest Group

If you’re interested in further exploring the areas where the principles and practices in archives and research data curation overlap and where they diverge, join the Research Data Alliance (RDA) Archives and Records Professionals for Research Data Interest Group. You’ll need to register with the RDA, (which is free!), and subscribe to the group. If you have any questions, feel free to get in touch!

IDB Curation Workflow

The following represents our planned functional workflow for handling dataset deposits in the Illinois Data Bank:

Workflow graphic created by Elizabeth Wickes. Click on the image to view it in greater detail.

Learn More

To learn more about the IDB policies and procedures discussed in this post, keep an eye on the Illinois Data Bank website after it launches next month. Of particular interest on the Policies page will be the Accession Policy and the Preservation Review, Retention, Deaccession, Revision, and Withdrawal Procedure document.


Bethany Anderson and Chris Prom of the University of Illinois Archives

The rest of the Research Data Preservation Review Policy/Procedures team: Bethany Anderson, Susan Braxton, Heidi Imker, and Kyle Rimkus

The rest of the RDS team: Qian Zhang, Elizabeth Wickes, Colleen Fallaw, and Heidi Imker


Dunham_ProcessingDigitalReserachData_PublishedDepositScan_ERSblog_2Elise Dunham is a Data Curation Specialist for the Research Data Service at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She holds an MLS from the Simmons College Graduate School of Library and Information Science where she specialized in archives and metadata. She contributes to the development of the Illinois Data Bank in areas of metadata management, repository policy, and workflow development. Currently she co-chairs the Research Data Alliance Archives and Records Professionals for Research Data Interest Group and is leading the DACS workshop revision working group of the Society of American Archivists Technical Subcommittee for Describing Archives: A Content Standard.

Let the Entities Describe Themselves

By Josh Schneider and Peter Chan

This is the fifth post in our Spring 2016 series on processing digital materials.


Why do we process archival materials? Do our processing goals differ based on whether the materials are paper or digital? Processing objectives may depend in part upon institutional priorities, policies, and donor agreements, or collection-specific issues. Yet, irrespective of the format of the materials, we recognize two primary goals to arranging and describing materials: screening for confidential, restricted, or legally-protected information that would impede repositories from providing ready access to the materials; and preparing the files for use by researchers, including by efficiently optimizing discovery and access to the material’s intellectual content.

More and more of the work required to achieve these two goals for electronic records can be performed with the aid of computer assisted technology, automating many archival processes. To help screen for confidential information, for instance, several software platforms utilize regular expression search (BitCurator, AccessData Forensic ToolKit, ePADD). Lexicon search (ePADD) can also help identify confidential information by checking a collection against a categorized list of user-supplied keywords. Additional technologies that may harness machine learning and natural language processing (NLP), and that are being adopted by the profession to assist with arrangement and description, include: topic modeling (ArchExtract); latent semantic analysis (GAMECIP); predictive coding (University of Illinois); and named entity recognition (Linked Jazz, ArchExtract, ePADD). For media, automated transcription and timecoding services (Pop Up Archive) already offer richer access. Likewise, computer vision, including pattern recognition and face recognition, has the potential to help automate image and video description (Stanford Vision Lab, IBM Watson Visual Recognition). Other projects (Overview) outside of the archival community are also exploring similar technologies to make sense of large corpuses of text.

From an archivist’s perspective, one of the most game-changing technologies to support automated processing may be named entity recognition (NER). NER works by identifying and extracting named entities across a corpus, and is in widespread commercial use, especially in the fields of search, advertising, marketing, and litigation discovery. A range of proprietary tools, such as Open Calais, Semantria, and AlchemyAPI, offer entity extraction as a commercial service, especially geared toward facilitating access to breaking news across these industries. ePADD, an open source tool being developed to promote the appraisal, processing, discovery, and delivery of email archives, relies upon a custom NER to reveal the intellectual content of historical email archives.


Currently, however, there are no open source NER tools broadly tuned towards the diverse variety of other textual content collected and shared by cultural heritage institutions. Most open source NER tools, such as StanfordNER and Apache OpenNLP, focus on extracting named persons, organizations, and locations. While ePADD also initially focused on just these three categories, an upcoming release will improve browsing accuracy by including more fine-grained categories of organization and location entities bootstrapped from Wikipedia, such as libraries, museums, and universities. This enhanced NER, trained to also identify probable matches, also recognizes other entity types such as diseases, which can assist with screening for protected health information, and events.

What if an open source NER like that in development for ePADD for historical email could be refined to support processing of an even broader set of archival substrates? Expanding the study and use of NLP in this fashion stands to benefit the public and an ever-growing body of researchers, including those in digital humanities, seeking to work with the illuminative and historically significant content collected by cultural heritage organizations.

Of course, entity extraction algorithms are not perfect, and questions remain for archivists regarding how best to disambiguate entities extracted from a corpus, and link disambiguated entities to authority headings. Some of these issues reflect technical hurdles, and others underscore the need for robust institutional policies around what constitutes “good enough” digital processing. Yet, the benefits of NER, especially when considered in the context of large text corpora, are staggering. Facilitating browsing and visualization of a corpus by entity type provides new ways for researchers to access content. Publishing extracted entities as linked open data can enable new content discovery pathways and uncover trends across institutional holdings, while also helping balance outstanding privacy and copyright concerns that may otherwise limit online material sharing.

It is likely that “good enough” processing will remain a moving target as researcher practices and expectations continue to evolve with emerging technologies. But we believe entity extraction fulfills an ongoing need to enable researchers to gain quick access to archival collections’ intellectual content, and that its broader application would greatly benefit both repositories and researchers.


Peter Chan is Digital Archivist in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Stanford University, is a member of GAMECIP, and is Project Manager for ePADD.

Josh Schneider is Assistant University Archivist in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Stanford University, and is Community Manager for ePADD.

Keeping Track of Time with Data Accessioner

By Kevin Dyke

This post is the fourth in our Spring 2016 series on processing digital materials.


When it comes to working to process large sets of electronic records, it’s all too easy to get so wrapped up in the task at hand that when you finally come up for air you look at the clock and think to yourself, “Where did the time go? How long was I gone?” Okay, that may sound rather apocalyptic, but tracking time spent is an important yet easily elided step in electronic records processing.

At the University of Minnesota Libraries, the members of the Electronic Records Task Force are charged with developing workflows and making estimates for future capacity and personnel needs. In an era of very tight budgets, making a strong, well-documented case for additional personnel and resources is critical. To that end, we’ve made some efforts to more systematically track our time as we pilot our workflows.

Chief among those efforts has been a customization of the Data Accessioner tool. Originally written for internal use at the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Duke University, the project has since become open source, with support for recent releases coming from the POWRR Project. Written in Java and utilizing the common logging library log4j, Data Accessioner is structured in a way that made it possible for someone like me (familiar with programming, but not much experience with Java) to enhance the time logging functionality.  As we know some accession tasks take a few minutes, others can run for many hours (if not days). Enhancing the logging functionality of Data Accessioner allows staff to accurately see how long any data transfer takes, without needing to be physically present. The additional functionality was in itself pretty minor: log the time and folder name before starting accessioning of a folder and upon completion. The most complex part of this process was not writing the additional code, but rather modifying the log4j configuration. Luckily, with an existing configuration file, solid documentation, and countless examples in the wild, I was able to produce a version of Data Accessioner that outputs a daily log as a plain text file, which makes time tracking accessioning jobs much easier. You can see more description of the changes I made and the log output formatting on GitHub. You can download a ZIP file with the application with this addition from that page as well, or use this download link.

Screenshots and a sample log file:

Main Data Accessioner Folder
Main Data Accessioner folder

Contents of Log Folder
Contents of log folder

Sample of the beginning and ending of log file showing the start time and end times for file migration
Sample of the beginning and ending of log file showing the start time and end times for file migration

With this change, we are now able to better estimate the time it takes to use Data Accessioner.  Do the tools you use keep track of the time it takes to run?  If not, how are you doing this?  Questions or comments can be sent to lib-ertf [at] umn [dot] edu.


Kevin DykeKevin Dyke is the spatial data analyst/curator at the University of Minnesota’s John R. Borchert Map Library. He’s a member of the University of Minnesota Libraries’ Electronic Records Task Force, works as a data curator for the Data Repository for the University of Minnesota (DRUM), and is also part of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation’s (CIC) Geospatial Data Discovery Project. He received a Masters degree in Geography from the University of Minnesota and can be reached at dykex005 [at] umn.edu.

Recent Changes in How Stanford University Libraries is Documenting Born-Digital Processing

By Michael G. Olson

This post is the third in our Spring 2016 series on processing digital materials.


Stanford University Libraries is in the process of changing how it documents its digital processing activities and records lab statistics. This is our third iteration of how we track our born-digital work in six years and is a collaborative effort between Digital Library Systems and Services, our Digital Archivist Peter Chan, and Glynn Edwards, who manages our Born-Digital Program and is the Director of the ePADD project.

Initially we documented our statistics using a library-hosted FileMaker Pro database. In this initial iteration we were focused on tracking media counts and media failure rates. After a single year of using the database we decided that we needed to modify the data structure and the data entry templates significantly. Our staff found the database too time consuming and cumbersome to modify.

We decided to simplify and replaced the database with a spreadsheet stored with our collection data. Our digital archivist and hourly lab employees were responsible for updating this spreadsheet when they had finished working with a collection. This was a simple solution that was easy to edit and update, and it worked well for four years until we realized we needed more data for our fiscal year-end reports. As our born-digital program has grown and matured, we discovered we were missing key data points that documented important processing decisions in our workflows. It was time to again improve how we documented our work.

BDFL_labstats_FY2015Q1-Q2_v2Stanford Statistics Spreadsheet version 2

For our brand new version of work tracking we have decided to continue to use a spreadsheet but have migrated our data to Google Drive to better facilitate updates and versioning of our documentation. New data points have been included to better track specific types of born-digital content like email. This new version also allows us to better document the processing lifecycle of our born-digital collections. In order to better do this we have created the following additional data points:

  • Number of email messages
  • Email in ePADD.stanford.edu
  • File count in media cart
  • File size on media cart (GB)
  • SearchWorks (materials discoverable / available in library catalog)
  • SpotLight Exhibit (a virtual exhibit)

BDFL_stats_v3Stanford Statistics Spreadsheet version 3

We anticipate that evolving library administrative needs, the continually changing nature of born-digital data, and new methodologies for processing these materials will make it necessary to again change how we document our work. Our solution is not perfect but is flexible enough to allow us to reimagine our documentation strategy in a few short years. If anyone is interested in learning more about what we are documenting and why, please do let us know, as we would be happy to provide further information and may learn something from our colleagues in the process.


Michael G. Olson is the Service Manager for the Born-Digital / Forensics Labs at Stanford University Libraries. In this capacity he is responsible for working with library stakeholders to develop services for acquiring, preserving and accessing born-digital library materials. Michael holds a Masters in Philosophy in History and Computing from the University of Glasgow. He can be reached at mgolson [at] Stanford [dot] edu.